JOURNAL OF PACIFIC STUDIES
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Vol.32, 2012(14)

Title: Indigenising the sustainability movement through critical indigenous pedagogy of place : a case study of a yuuth farm

Author: Trinidad, Alma M.O.
Subject:  
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 45-56

Abstract: Young people of Native Hawaiian background face an array of issues that limit their understanding of their cultural roots and knowledge useful in a sustainability movement that focuses on food security. Despite the sociopolitical climate, Pacific Islander communities are taking an active role in indigenising their sustainability efforts by involving youth. This article highlights a case study of a youth Farm. The Farm utilises Critical Indigenous Pedagogy of Place (CIPP). CIPP can promote critical understanding of history, cultural values and responsibility. Findings of the study suggest that CIPP can be an effective process and method in indigenising a sustainability movement that involves young people. Research and practice implications are discussed.

Original information

Title: Potential of composted mounding in sustaining soil productivity and sweetpotato yields in the Papua New Guinea highlands

Author: Taraken, Isaac T.
Subject:  Composted mounds
 Soil management|Papua New Guinea
 Soil productivity|Papua New Guinea
 Organic gardening
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 147-161

Abstract: An agricultural technology, now known as the sweetpotato composted mound, was developed some 300 years ago when sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) was first introduced into Enga area. The technology involves placing cut vegetation or garden debris in soil mounds for cultivating sweetpotato and other crops. This practice offsets the inherent soil fertility problems of the volcanic ash soils dominant in this area and improves tuber yields. Today, it is widely practised in Enga, Southern Highlands and part of Western Highlands, and could be adapted in other highland locations that have a similar environment. The tuber yields from such mounds have been reported to range from 20 to 60 t ha-1. The technique allows permanent land use and intercropping, and facilitates successive multiple harvests of tubers and other vegetables, hence easing population pressure on land use compared to shifting cultivation. It counteracts the risks of frosts and soil-borne pests and diseases, and reduces soil erosion. About 20 agronomic trials conducted between the early 1970s and the 1990s showed its potential for further research in improving crop yields while maintaining soil fertility. A current ACIAR1 funded project at NARI’s Tambul Research Station in the Western Highlands showed that on marginal soils, composted mounds could help achieve sweetpotato yields of 11 to 13 times higher than yields from treatments without compost, particularly when high nutrient accumulating plant species were used as compost

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Title: New Caledonia looking at the experiences of other Pacific Island countries : borrowing from Pacific pasts?

Author: Chauchat, Mathias
Subject:  Decolonisation
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 65-72

Abstract: Decolonisation has always been tragic in French history. How can such a situation be avoided in New Caledonia? New Caledonia has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1986. Civil unrest, which culminated in 1988, led to agreement with France on increased autonomy under the Matignon Accord of 1988 and the Noumea Accord of 1998. The Noumea Agreement borrowed from the Melanesian tradition called palabre, in which Kanak communities, traditionally. sit and talk together in order to solve problems. The Noumea Agreement also borrowed separate citizenship from the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The Noumea Agreement describes the process of transfer of powers from France to New Caledonia as irreversible. It provides for mandating a referendum sometime after 2014 on the contentious issue of independence. This referendum could be a recipe for disaster. What could New Caledonia borrow from Pacific Pasts?

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Title: Polynesian ethnomycology : a case for studying fungi in the Pacific

Author: Fuller, Rebekah J.M.
Subject:  Fungi
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 73-82

Abstract: Fungi are used as materials, as food, in trade, as medicines and in cultural practices across the world. However, the use of fungi is inconsistent across cultures, some readily using fungi as a resource and some not. The reasons for this pattern of fungal use have yet to be resolved. Research into the Pacific use of fungi would provide information to assist in understanding the pattern of the use of fungi globally. To date research into the Polynesian use of fungi has identified two main attributes. First, fungi are recognised and named in the environment and have an associated body of knowledge on fungal biology and ecology. Secondly, changes have taken place over time, including innovations in terms and uses in some Polynesian cultures. There is evidence to suggest that fungi have been used in the past in the Pacific as a source of medicine, as materials and as food. By studying fungi as a less important resource we develop an understanding of Pacific people’s interaction with the greater environment and what might drive people to use the environment in the way they do. Also discussed are the benefits to traditional knowledge and modern resource management.

Original information

Title: The value of historical ecology in planning for sustainable livelihoods : a Kiribati case study

Author: Thomas, Frank R.
Subject:  Sustainable development
 Sustainable living
 Landscape changes|Research
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 131-146

Abstract: The precariousness of human existence on atolls, both past and present, is apparent when one examines the close linkages between communities and their environment. There have been few applications of Historical Ecology, the transdisciplinary study of how human societies and the ‘natural’ environment interact and transform each other through time, on atolls and other coral islands, particularly for the period preceding Western contact. Kiribati provides examples of communities that did not endure, as well as others that were sustainable for some 2,000 years. Knowledge of ecological complexity over centuries and millennia is a critical first step in the process of identifying the causes of environmental change and devising realistic methods for managing scarce atoll resources, as well as assessing the effectiveness of traditional adaption strategies in contemporary settings

Original information

Title: Fire and people in tropical island grassland landscapes : Fiji and Madagascar

Author: Kull, Christian A.
Subject:  Burning of land|Madagascar
 Burning of land|Fiji
 Fire management|Madagascar
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 121-129

Abstract: Little research has focused specifically on fire in Fiji’s leeward grass-covered hills and mountains. In this paper, I review what is known about Fiji’s grassland fires, what we can surmise from comparison with Madagascar (another frequently burnt tropical island landscape) and what questions deserve further research. Grassy biomes and fire were more common than previously thought in prehuman seasonally dry landscapes; Madagascar and Fiji are no exception. People burn in both places for diverse livelihood reasons, but in particular for pasture management and cropfield preparation. Fires, however, do escape control and damage property, and are also blamed for effects on health, climate and biodiversity. Government regulation of fire is difficult to enforce and often ignored. Given the danger of fuel build- up and the cost of other land management options, continued traditional burning is a realistic future outlook.

Original information

Title: Reasons for regionalism within the Pacific islands

Author: Chand, Satish
Subject:  Regionalism|Pacific Area
 Pacific Area cooperation
 Pacific Area|Economic integration.
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 25-43

Abstract: This paper investigates the economic motivations for group-formation (regionalism) amongst Pacific island nations and between the island nations on the one hand and ‘the big island nations’ Australia and New Zealand on the other. The case for regionalism to increase flows of merchandise trade amongst island nations is weak, that for the integration of tourism is stronger, while the case for integration of labour markets is the strongest. Gains from international trade can be raised through: (i) a unilateral shift to multilateralism with respect to merchandise trade; (ii) market-driven integration of services; and, (iii) a gradual increase in regional mobility of workers.

Original information

Title: Kainga : an ancient solution for contemporary challenges of Tongan studemts' academic achievement in New Zealand tertiary education

Author: kalavite, Telesia
Subject:  Academic achievement
 Academic achievement|Pacific Area
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 1-10

Abstract: There are many successful Tongans in academia but in New Zealand there is a concern about the low academic achievement of Tongan students in tertiary education. This paper discusses the importance and impact of kāinga (blood/kin or social relationships) between Tongan tertiary students and their supporters; the pule‘anga (bureaucracy), their fāmili (family), siasi (church) and fonua (wider community), towards their education. These relationships between Tongan tertiary students and their supporters can either enhance or constrain their academic achievement. Tongan students are academically successful when the different contexts of kāinga in terms of tā (time) and vā (space) intersect or interact harmoniously within and between each other. Thus, kāinga is an ancient solution for contemporary challenges for Tongan students in New Zealand tertiary education.

Original information

Title: The need for an integrated approach to understanding and managing coastal change in river delta areas : the case of the Rewa river

Author: Tamata, Ulukalesi, Comley, James, Tokalauvere, Lanieta
Subject:  Marine sediments
 Coast changes
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 11-24

Abstract: The watershed area of the Rewa River, the largest river in Fiji, takes up about one-third of the total land area of Viti Levu. The Rewa watershed receives high rainfall, and the Rewa catchment has the highest run-off coefficient for the major rivers in Fiji. Flooding of the Rewa River and delta causes massive losses, to the local people and to the nation in damage to infrastructure, economic costs of rehabilitation and financial assistance to affected communities. Not only is flooding of the Rewa River a major stumbling block to the expansion of Nausori Town, it also affects land formations in the delta: over time, the Rewa delta has undergone physical change, as is characteristic of deltas around the world. The causes of flooding have been attributed to a combination of factors, both natural and anthropogenic . Mitigating the effects of flooding requires an integrated approach.

Original information

Title: Climate and environmental change and food security : some conceptual considerations

Author: Weber, Eberhard
Subject:  Environmental Change and Security Program
 Food security
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 99-110

Abstract: For many years issues of climate and environmental change have been mainly seen from a perspective of mitigation : what can we do to prevent climate and environmental change from happening? But the major questions, ever since the scientific community acknowledged that climate change is real, have now changed fundamentally. Today’s major concerns are: how can societies adjust, adapt to or at least cope with the impacts arising from climate and environmental change? Research on climate and environmental change and the impact on food and livelihood security needs to incorporate these changes. This not only has to do with changing perspectives about climate change, biodiversity conservation and environmental research; it also has to acknowledge emerging new paradigms in the field of food and livelihood security research that have been developed over the past 30 years, and that have much relevance for Pacific Island countries.

Original information

Title: Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and biodiversity conservation : strengthening community-based approaches (CBA) to conservation and building equitable partnerships in practice with indigenous peoples of Costa Rica

Author: Orcherton, Dan
Subject:  Traditional ecological knowledge
 Biodiversity conservation
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 83-98

Abstract: Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is important in preserving and conserving biocultural diversity. The paper draws on data from 20 case-study farms and communities in the Talamanca Indigenous Reserve of south-eastern Costa Rica. The BriBri and Cabecar indigenous groups preserve and conserve biocultural diversity on the basis of their abilities to maintain traditional roles and responsibilities; and successfully build equitable research relationships by conserving biocultural diversity on the basis of their abilities to build research relationships with community leaders and decision makers. Loss of TEK, however, is attendant on declining roles and responsibilities of elders, acculturation of valley populations, pressure of external market influences and socioeconomic drivers, which reduce their adaptive capacity. Indigenous agroforestry practices have persevered, continuing to shape the biodiversity of their farming systems through decisions affecting sociocultural processes and land-use, by making effective use of all available TEK.

Original information

Title: Steering a course for the future with sticks, stones, grass and a little sharkskin : the case for revitalisation of sail technology and sailing culture as a practical sea-transport response to climate change and fossil fuel dependence and supply issues in Fiji

Author: Nuttall, Peter
Subject:  Sailing
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 163-175

Abstract: The paper makes an initial case for a more detailed inquiry into and analysis of the role sail technology might play in seeking sustainable and Oceanian -centred sea-transport adaptations for the region. Immediate and pressing challenges that face the coastal and island communities of Oceania include increasing environmental degradation, the uncertain effects of a climate change future and increasing dependency on imported fossil fuel with related concerns of supply and price security. Global interest in alternative energy technologies is widespread but sea transport generally and sail technology in particular have not been seriously explored. Past lessons and recent research indicate strong potential for sail technology to provide practical and multiple benefits to island and village communities as a viable alternative, although substantial barriers exist to such a revitalisation. Sail has potential at all levels of local, national and regional sea transport. The example of a fleet of small-scale, village based, sail powered catamarans is explored. The research focus of this paper is geographically limited to a Fijian example but is expected to have regional applicability.

Original information

Title: Future challenges, ancient solutions in land use and land tenure

Author: Ward, R. Gerard
Subject:  
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 111-120

Abstract: ‘Ancient Solutions’ were always embedded in a total social, technical and economic complex that rarely exists today. Examples of ancient complex irrigated terrace systems of taro cultivation and of wet land ditching and mounding systems are described and the possibilities of using selected aspects of these old systems are considered. Ancient and current land tenure practices, which were not recognised when colonial governments codified ‘customary’ tenure systems, are described and the question of whether such practices should be recognised and legalised in future is considered. If these ancient systems of land use and tenure are to be available to meet future challenges, it is important to ensure that detailed knowledge and understanding of them is not lost as generations pass.

Original information

Title: Trading preferentially and protection : is it good for Pacific Islands countries?

Author: Gounder, Neelesh, Prasad, Biman Chand
Subject:  Trade policy
 International trade
Volume: Vol.32, 2012
Collation: p. 57-64

Abstract: [ Abstract not available ]

Original information

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