JOURNAL OF PACIFIC STUDIES
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Vol.32 no.2, 2012(7)

Title: Sciences in the plural : the UNESCO Environmental Encyclopedia of Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands

Author: Hviding, Edvard
Subject:  Marovo Lagoon (Solomon Islands)
Volume: Vol.32 no.2, 2012
Collation: p. 128-143

Abstract: On the basis of 25 years' research in Marovo Lagoon, Western Solomon Islmuis, this paper discusses interactions between wcal development aspirations and introduced agerultls ifbwdWersity managemen4 and argues for increased diawgue between wcal and gwbal ways if !mowing and classijjing bwdwersity. Transnational companier have exploiwd th£ reif> and rainforests if Marovo Lagoon since th£ 1980s, while th£ area has attained international renown as a bwdWersity hotspot 7hrough customary law, th£ Marovo tribal groups still own th£ lagoon and th£ land whose resources are targets if such conjlicting p"!iects as wgging and bwdwersity conservation. Chiefi and leaders in Maravo have also initiated and suppomd academic research documenting resource use, management institutions and enoironmentallmowledge. 7his encounter between wcal and non-wcal!mowledge opens th£ possibility if making meaningfol connections between (1) Western science, (2) agerultls if environmental sustainability and (3) !mowledge and aspirations if local people. To i.lIustraw how such connections can be mediaWd by Wag-term anthropowgical fold research, th£ paper reports a UNESCO initiatioe based on an Environmental Enryclopedia in th£ Marouo Waguage that also contains English translations and scientific identifications. A new approach to environmental education in Marouo schools now uses this book, aiming to prepare youth for sustainable rural lifestyles, while also fo!fiJJing national polily to promow wcally and gwbal[y relevant vernacular education. In 2010 an online version if th£ book was launched as an OER (Open Educational Resource) contributing to a pioneering dfort unrierw'!Y in Marouo Lagoon to use rural internet-based education inaolving th£ OLPC (One Laptop per Child) P"!iect and ¥SA T broadband to remow locations. TheJoW7ll1l <

Original information

Title: Openness and growth of the Fijian economy

Author: Maiti, Dibyendu, Prasad, Biman Chand
Subject:  Subsistence economy|Fiji
Volume: Vol.32 no.2, 2012
Collation: p. 32-51

Abstract: Does openness h..q;t smoll economies? The means used here for addressing thir issue is an ano!Jsis if the evidence ftom Fiji. Wefind that the openmss if Fij~ in hoth absolute and relatice tmns, was on the rise during 197(}-2009. The increase in openness since 1988 ho.s heen sharp, mainly hecause if the rise in imports. Our econumetric results suggest that such openness ho.s had a positice hut weak impact on the GDP growth. It ho.s hen¢ted the service sectors (e.g. the trading aad tourism sectors) whik the industrUd and constructicn sectors haoe grown little aad agriculture ho.s decelerated. We .forther ohserve that h..q;ts ftom intra-industry trade seem to he very low, particular!J due to the lack if secondmy-sector development TherifOr~for Fiji, the economic gainftom trade relies primari!J on comparatWe advantages derivedftom the traditional sectors. The country needs to pursue deliberate policies if integratUin aad to encourage domestic inoestment.for the development if modern industrial aad manufacturing sectors in the economy.

Original information

Title: Climate change and renewable energy implications for the Pacific Islands of a global perspective

Author: Weir, Tony
Subject:  Renewable energy
 Renewable energy sources|Pacific Area
 Climate change mitigation|Islands of the Pacific
Volume: Vol.32 no.2, 2012
Collation: p. 4-30

Abstract: The 2007 Assessment Repori if the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) implies that to avoid dangerous climate change it will be necessary to hold temperature rises to kss tIum about 2 DC above pre-imlustrial values. To achieve this goal will require gblbal greenhouse gas emissions to be 50% to 80% lower in 2050 tIum in 2000, aruf to begin declining i!Y 2015. Ibis is a nugor challenge to the world. ConsequentlY, the IPCC pablishd in 2011 a Special Repori on &newabt. Energy, which reviewed the state if the art, the current status aruf the technical potential if each if the main renewabt. energy (RE) teehnoblg!£.<, aruf thus the feasibilitY aruf cost if meeting these climate change targets through much increased use if RE. 1his paper outlines some ~ foulings if that Special Report, and their implications for the Pacific Islands. It concluct.s that the required gblbal increase in RE in plm;e if fossil.foels is technicaf!y aruf economicaf!y possibl4 especiallY if coupt.d with increases in ifJicienry if energy us~ But it will require signijicant investmen~ substantial institutional aruf social chang~ aruf the political will to drive such clumge. Such changes in the gblbal energy ~stem wouldflow through to Pacific Islnnd countms in the.form ifblwering the cost to them ifrenewabt. energy teehnolog!£.< aruf would bring benffits in terms if environmental aruf economic security. Nevertkekss, some.fortker climate change is inevitable, aruf the Pacific Islands will still need to adapt to more severe climate extremes. !l.cent resenrch suggests that without a rapid reduction if gblbal greenhouse gas emissions, the atoll countms if the region 1ll'!)' become II1Iinhnbitabt. i!Y about 2040 because if salt-water inwufation. TheJounwl. <

Original information

Title: Creating an enabling environment for indigenous business in Fiji

Author: Appana, Subhash
Subject:  Fiji Indigenous Business Councill
 Small business|Management|Fiji
Volume: Vol.32 no.2, 2012
Collation: p. 50-68

Abstract: The ongoing strains qf a sustained global economic downturn ha:ve forced a shift in focus to how individual countries can generate small-scak inward-focused eco1lfJmic activity whik waitingfor the global eC01lfJmy to regain its vibranry. It is in this regard that SM& ha:ve gravitated to centre stage, especiallY in isolated developing economies. In Fiji, recent government poliq has prioritised 'selfhelp' and 'selfsuiJiciency'in a marked departure.from the established outward-focus that characterised policies during the second half qf the 1980s and much qf the next 2 decades. A mqjor concern that all qf Fiji's governments ha:ve had to grappk with has been an increasinglY insistent ethnic-Fijian desire to participate in a more uisibk manner in the commercial sector. GWen Fiji's sociopolitical composition, this opens up promising avenues for mobilising hitherto dormant resources ond encournging indigenous business within the SME framework. After providing a critical historical overview qf indigenous business initiatWes in Fiji, this paper contends that many qf the reasons for past shortcomings had to do with a political reluctance to aclrnowkdge openly the need for strict eco1lfJmic solutions to business problems. A mqjor shortcoming in this regard was the triuialisation qf the tenet qf accountability in the interests qf political expedieruy. This paper proposes an enablingframework for indigenous business management It concludes l!J! proposing a number qf sectors that '!.!fer encournging opportunities for indigenous business within the SME framework.

Original information

Title: A study into the feasibility of establishing a local vegetable seed supply enterprise in Solomon Islands

Author: Neave, Suzanne
Subject:  Seed supply|developing countries
Volume: Vol.32 no.2, 2012
Collation: p. 144-158

Abstract: This paper examims the factors contributing to the development 'If a robust local seed suPPlY ~s1em in Solomon Islands in the absence 'If conventWrud inftastructure and an enabling regulatory environment It is based on a case stu,y 'If an agricultural input supplier based in Honiara wlw contracted with a localfarmer to grow eggplant and tomato prinuuily for seed productUm. An economic analysis to Ikterenine whether such an enterprise would be economicallY vWhle.for both parti£s and a discussion 'If the practical constraints and opportunitics in the currenJ agribusiness environment are presented. The economic analYsis indicated there are potentio.ljinoncial ineentivesfor a retailer to contract with afarmer to SUPPlY seedfor the local market Based on the data collected during the stu,y, the cost 'lfproduction was SED 443 and 4,126 per kgfor eggplant and tomato respectioeIY, while costsfor processing and retailing were SBD 1,780 and 8,691 per kgfor eggplant and tomato, respectioeIY. The rate 'If return varies according to the price at which the farmer sells the seed to the retailer, and the retail price 'If that seed. However, as the reallkmand.for seed is not yet realised and standards and regulations to ensure qualitY are not yet in ploce, a local, private-sector driven seed supplY enterprise in the near foture seems a limited possibiliry.

Original information

Title: Television advertising and viewers' attitude : a comparative study of Fiji and India

Author: Singh, Gurmeet, Gautam, Harish
Subject:  Advertising
 Consumer behaviour
Volume: Vol.32 no.2, 2012
Collation: p. 70-86

Abstract: This study reports the results qf a survey conducted on IV VMwerS qf India and Fiji to compare Iww positWe consumer attitude is towards IV adJiertising in these two different geographical locations. The study finds that consumers' interest in watching IV Iws declined wlwn compared with past levels. But those who watch IV appreciate the sense qf hwnour in adJiertisements and they find the advertisements slwwn on IV entertoining. Some qf the respondents were qf the view that they like to watch advertisements not.fOr knowledge or information so much as for entertoinmenL The findings qf this research reveal that consumers in India and Fiji have positioe attitude towards IV adJiertising. The stut!Y also found that these is no significant difference in vim.vers' attitude towards IV adJiertising based on income, occupation, gender and education.

Original information

Title: Cushioning the shock of early retirement policy : a human resource management perspective of revitalising the teaching workforce

Author: Lingam, Govinda Ishwar
Subject:  Retirement|Government policy|Fiji
 Retirement
Volume: Vol.32 no.2, 2012
Collation: p. 87-102

Abstract: This paper focuses on dClJeloping and managing the teaching wurlifince in Fiji. 8pecifical!J; the paper examines the sudden lowering 'If retirement age 'If public servants including teachers and the need for the empif!ying authorities to manage their teaching uxnIifOrce more iffoctWely. Teachers are the most significant resource in schools, especUd!Ji in developing contexts as ~ pfo); a key role in children's education and school improvement ifforts. Based on the premise that teachers deserve the most attentWn, the paper highlights potential risks 'If inappropriLlte strategies for developing and managing the teaching worlifOrce, which could have for-reaching iffocts on all spheres 'If a nation's development. The paper argues the putting in place 'If mechonisms to avoid premature loss 'If teachers from the profission. The findings.from the literature discussed in this paper have implicatWns 'If relevance to education policies and pions, and identifies practices necessary to improve the management 'If teaching resources, an essential forerunner to improvement 'If the qualitY 'If education in Fiji.

Original information

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