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Vol. 39, no. 1, 2019(5)

Title: Do high renewable energy targets hinder donor-funded rural electrification in Pacific island countries?

Author: Ikarii, Ryohei
Subject:  Renewal Energy
 Rural electrification
Volume: Vol. 39, no. 1, 2019
Collation: p. 30-51

Abstract: High renewable energy targets and rural electrification are not necessarily complementary in Pacific island countries (PICs). While PICs need to tackle both high renewable energy targets for climate change and rural electrification for further development, investment in renewable energy in urban areas is a more cost-effective means of achieving renewable energy targets than rural electrification with renewables. In the energy sector in PICs, foreign aid is the single most important source of investment. Thus, this research will investigate donor-funding for energy projects, assess the extent to which the funding is focused on rural electrification, and examine whether the situation has changed over time in this region. A large share of the information about foreign aid for energy projects between 2013 and 2015 are extracted from a database of a think tank. All the energy projects are sorted into four categories: urban power supply, rural electrification, others, and unspecified projects. The results show that PICs are not only improving urban power supply but also enhancing rural electrification currently, and foreign aid for rural electrification has increased over time. This research also suggests policy recommendations for the donor and recipient governments, including data collection and analysis on electricity demand and energy consumption.

Original information

Title: Gender Differences in HIV Risk Perception and Sexual Behaviour of Young Adults in Metropolitan Areas of Fiji

Author: Singh, Gurmeet, Sewak, Aarti, Reddy, Karuna G., Ram, Sharan
Subject:  Gender Differences
 Sexual Behaviour
 Sexual Health
Volume: Vol. 39, no. 1, 2019
Collation: p. 102-127

Abstract: This study seeks to understand variations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk perception and sexual behaviour among male and female adults in Fiji. The Second-Generation Surveillance Report (2006) indicates the median age of first sex within the youth group as 16 years (range 10 – 23 years). Therefore, this study was purposively targeted at individuals of reproductive age, preferably 10 years and above. We utilized convenience sampling to collect 137 self-administered surveys from individuals working in both public and private sector organizations in two highly populated areas of Fiji. Independent samples t-test analyses revealed that men living in urban areas are more likely to experiment with multiple sexual partners, have a higher tendency of engaging in sexual practices, and are highly likely to have unsafe sex with multiple partners. Gender-sensitive interventions may help facilitate and achieve positive behaviour change among males and influence the sexual health of females.

Original information

Title: Freshwater Mussel (Batissa violacea) Fishery and its Value in Fiji

Author: Lako, Jimaima, Kuridrani, Nanise, Sobey, Milika
Subject:  Fiji freshwater mussels
 Kai fishery
 Batissa violacea
Volume: Vol. 39, no. 1, 2019
Collation: p. 192-215

Abstract: This paper examines the local freshwater mussel, or kai (Batissa violacea), fishery value chain, its values and contribution to the livelihood of people in Viti Levu, Fiji. The assessment was performed through face-to-face interviews, with the use of semistructured questionnaires administered to 125 actors. A walk through the value-chain was also conducted that confirmed the sites’ environmental conditions. Results revealed that even though the kai fishery is dominated by rural women, men were also employed as kai processors, transporting agents and exporters. This fishery generated at least 58 other employments through the 500 kai harvesters within the five major provinces understudy. These were drivers, boat builders, retailers, processors, exporters, and harvesters. Three sales pathways were identified that determined the revenues and profits: (i) harvesters sell own harvests directly to the consumer at the municipal markets, (ii) harvesters sell through intermediary traders to consumers, and (iii) harvesters sell through processors to supermarkets, hotels or exporters. When revenues and profits were calculated, harvesters earned much less, compared to intermediary traders, processors, and exporters. Major constraints include continuous reduction in catch size of kai, lack of transport, and marketing at the local municipal markets that require improvements.

Original information

Title: Tourism and Residents’ Quality of Life: a critical examination

Author: Matatolu, Ilisapeci
Subject:  Indigenous communities
 Tourism activities
Volume: Vol. 39, no. 1, 2019
Collation: p. 128-164

Abstract: This academic paper aims at increasing awareness and understanding of extant knowledge relating to empirical research undertaken on how residents’ quality of life (QOL) is impacted by tourism activities. The paper will deliberate related definitions, critically examine selected theoretical frameworks and main themes of extant empirical research in relation to tourism and residents’ QOL, with a focus on Pacific context. Strengths and weaknesses of selected theoretical frameworks discussed include social exchange theory, social representations theory and bottom up spillover theory. It also scrutinizes concepts related to how the actions of tourists and the activities of tourism businesses affect indigenous host communities in relation to impacts on residents’ QOL. It concludes with an overview of current limitations and future research opportunities encompassing tourism activities and residents’ QOL scholarship. Future research opportunities highlighted include an expansion of ontological and epistemological issues in relation to research related to resident atitudes to tourism and quality of life in indigenous communities.

Original information

Title: Tourism Development in the South Pacific: the cases of Nauru and Tuvalu

Author: Towner, Nick, Taumoepeau, Semisi
Subject:  Climate change
 SWOT analysis
Volume: Vol. 39, no. 1, 2019
Collation: p. 52-72

Abstract: Tuvalu and Nauru are isolated developing island nations located in the South Pacific Ocean. In contrast to the established larger Pacific destinations such as Fiji and Tahiti, the tourism industries on both Tuvalu and Nauru are in their infancy. Tourism development in these remote island nations faces a myriad of challenges which include a lack of infrastructure, environmental susceptibility, economic vulnerability, difficulties with access and considerable distances from major tourist markets. This paper reviews tourism on Tuvalu and Nauru and evaluates their current situation regarding potential tourism development through workshops with relevant stakeholders, surveys and subsequent SWOT analysis. The results of the paper outlined a large number of challenges faced by Tuvalu and Nauru due to their geographic location but also highlighted that both Islands possess fascinating and unique features that have the potential to attract niche tourism markets. A key finding of this paper is that the tourism stimulus or potential attraction can also be the chief threat to the islands’ economic survival hence the two edges of the sword. Further research is required to assess the effect of the withdrawal of the Refugee Processing Centre on Nauru’s economy and to evaluate the impact of climate change on Tuvalu’s society and potential adaption strategies.

Original information

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